Friday 8 November - Poster Presentations
10:50-12:30, Room: Foyer Area, 1st floor

Theme: Faculty development

Chair: Professor Harm Peters, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin

The use of cognitive modes as a tool to learn clinical reasoning in medicine

Corresponding author: Bruno Teixeira, University of Minho, Portugal,

Since the landmark report from the Institute of Medicine - To Err is Human (1999), much has changed regarding healthcare safety and quality. As a matter of fact, it laid the founding stone that gave rise to a worldwide movement towards the reduction of treatment-related errors and health systems-related factors affecting patient safety. Sixteen years later, the National Academy of Sciences, published their seminal work on Improving Diagnosis in Healthcare (2015), which brought diagnostic errors into the spotlight. The report shifted the focus from treatment-related errors to diagnostic errors, seeking ways to reduce diagnostic errors through multi-level interventions. One area that needed to be tackled was “education and training in the diagnostic process”. In this regard, several strategies to improve diagnostic reasoning and performance have been designed, some of which have shown promising results. Building on this momentum, we aim at evaluating the effects of a medical students’ reasoning Club on diagnostic reasoning through metacognitive skills and deliberate switching between modes of reasoning (using the dual-process theory as a framework). Using a mixed-methods approach, 5th and 6th-year medical students’ preferential modes of reasoning will be evaluated by applying a think-aloud protocol immediately after the completion of a series of clinical cases designed to prompt students’ different modes of reasoning. This evaluation will take place at the beginning and at the end of the Club. Qualitative and quantitative data will be compared so that conclusions can be drawn regarding the effect of the Club on students’ reasoning skills.

PBL evaluation of students at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Girona

Xavier Castells, Lluís Ramió, Ferran Cordón, Ramon Orriols, Eduardo Esteve, Sara Pagans, *Dolors Capellà,  
* Corresponding author: Dolors Capellà, Faculty of Medicine, University of Girona, Girona, Spain 

The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Girona started its activities in 2008. Following the recommendations of the European Higher Education Area, we use the Problem-based Learning (PBL) methodology as the main teaching approach in all subjects. With this methodology, students, in small groups (10-12 students), build up their learning from a medical problem. This problem is discussed in three work sessions during a week. In the first PBL session, the problem is presented and the students must identify the learning objectives and organize a work plan. The students have two days to work on the objectives and, during the second session, the objectives drawn from the first session of work are presented and discussed. At the end of the session the tutor reveals the learning objectives associated with that case. Unfinished goals and doubts that have arisen generate a new work plan. During the third session, the final objectives are discussed, the doubts are resolved and the acquired knowledge is applied to the understanding of the case. Other teaching methodologies include seminars, workshops, lectures and clinical traineeship (simulations and real patients). 

Students’ assessment includes different evaluation typologies. Forty percent of the final score is made up by the evaluation of the performance of students during the PBL sessions. An additional 20% comes from a PBL exam and the 40% left varies between the different subjects but it usually includes knowledge evaluations through a multiple choice exam, evaluation of the seminars and workshops as well as the evaluation of the acquired clinical skills during the traineeship. In addition, an Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) is performed at the end of the last academic year. 

One of the main concerns that we have faced with the evaluation strategies is the lack of discrimination of the PBL sessions assessment. The students’ work and performance during the PBL sessions is assessed in a structured template, which takes into account learning abilities, communication, responsibility and interpersonal relationship. The evaluation of each of these four domains includes five different items that can be scored from 0 to 5. In order to broaden the template discrimination capacity, the evaluation template has been reviewed and updated using a Delphi-like methodology. Here, we compare and discuss the main characteristics of the former and the renewed template.

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry UP Olomouc - since 2003 to now.

Milan Raska, Milan Kolar, Josef Zadrazil
* Corresponding author: Milan Raska, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc. Czech Republic,  

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry offers modern, practically oriented, internationally accredited master's degree programs: a 6-year program in General Medicine and a 5-year program in Dentistry in Czech and English language. All study programs are using the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), thus allowing the students to spend part of their studies abroad. Indispensable part of faculty members activities consists in conducting research which increases continuously quantitatively and qualitatively. The medical faculty is closely integrated into the clinical facilities of the university hospital with total capacity 1198 beds. 

Summary of Work 
We compared current and historical data about the pre- and post-graduate study programs, the counts of students, count of academic and research faculty members and development of Common Scientometric indexes for last 15 years. 

Summary of Results 
Within analysed period we achieved 11% increase in the number of students in Czech general medicine program, 45% increase in Czech stomatology program and 500% increase in the English General Medicine program. The number of students in postgraduate study programs increased for 25%. In the year 2018/2019, total of 1418 students were enrolled for General Medicine program of which 1117 students in Czech program and 301 students in English program. Totally 475 students were enrolled for Dentistry program of which 413 were in Czech program and 62 students in English program. In 2018, a 2 years pre-graduate program Public Health was accredited in Czech language, with 25 students enrolled for academic year 2019-2020. Within last 15 years, the total number of academic and research staff of the faculty (including part-time employees) increased from 485 to 732 in 2018. The total awarded grant support increased from 66 million CZK in 2003 to 323 million in 2018. The number of publications developed from total 600 in 2003 including 90 papers in IF journal to total 483 publications in 2018 with 324 papers in IF journals. 

Discussion & Conclusion 
Several aspects affect comparison of above parameters during last 15 years period. This includes establishment of independent Faculty of Health Science which leaded to reduction in total number of academic faculty employee. On the other hand, new researchers were employed since year 2012 when the Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine was established. Structural changes supported research activities and publication outputs. Current H-index of the faculty is 64 and the number of citations according to Web of Science is 22056. 

Take-home Message 
Within last 15 years, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc increased substantially education and scientific activities and currently is evaluated by QS World University Rankings into rank 451-500.

Search of effective methods of teaching human anatomy in medical universities of Kazakhstan

* Sholpan Sadykova, Aisulu Zholdybaeva, Aizhan Kussaiynova
* Corresponding author: Sholpan Sadykova, Kazakh-Russian Medical University, Kazakhstan 

Problems of teaching human anatomy always interested, and will interest teachers of the medical universities. The matter is that knowledge of human anatomy is necessary for all doctors without exception, it is the base of any medical specialty. At the same time studying of anatomy begins on younger courses and presents great difficulties. The first-year student should acquire enormous volumes of information which are little connected among themselves and which are from time to time is not giving in to a logical explanation. 

The way to improve the efficiency of learning materials that we use is active teaching methods, mostly widespread TBL. The benefits of TBL, which we have experienced, are to increase student interest and improve their learning outcomes. TBL training is focused on wider interaction of students not only with the teacher, but also with each other and at the prevalence of student activity in the learning process.The important moment is this method must be combined with method of preparation of cadaveric material. The most suitable way to study the three-dimensional anatomy of the human body. As one of the ways out of the current situation, while studying certain topics, in particular, the structure of the heart, it may be the use of the heart of cattle purchased on the market. In this case, the lesson is conducted with an emphasis on the comparative anatomy of humans and animals. It is much easier for students to imagine and remember the structure in the process of self-preparation of the natural heart. 

As a result of training, students acquire theoretical knowledge and practical skills. In order to find out the influence of one or another method of teaching theoretical material and mastering the practical component of knowledge, the groups were divided according to the combinations of the methods we used.

Professional knowledge and/or soft skills are in the focus of teaching medical students? Attitudes towards medical education from the teachers’ and students’ perspective

* Zsuzsanna Varga, Zsuzsanna PÓTÓ, László CZOPF, Zsuzsanna FÜZESI
* Corresponding author: Zsuzsanna Varga, University of Pécs, Medical School, Hungary 

The quality of medical education is a key factor in terms of the global changes and the fact that doctors teach tomorrow’s doctors. We aimed to examine the attitudes of lecturers and students towards the learning outcomes of the medical programme, teaching medicine and the pedagogic skills acquired by lecturers. 

Data collection through self-reported questionnaire in online form in the four Hungarian higher education institutions offering medical education was carried out in November 2017. Altogether 1943 questionnaires (students: 1505, lecturers: 439) were processed and for data analysis crosstabs, Chi-squares, Anova tests, Gap analysis matrices were performed. Furthermore, in-depth interviews are in progress to complete our research. 

We used GAP matrices to represent the correspondences of the satisfaction and importance of factors of the learning outcomes and pedagogic skills. Out of the 25 learning outcomes respondents rated only one (the knowledge of historical overview of the medical disciplines) less important, than its satisfaction rate. In all other factors the respondents rated the factors very important, but they are not satisfied with their delivery. Regarding pedagogic skills, we concluded that teachers have still rated professional knowledge as the most important factor as opposed to the students who would mostly prefer further development of teachers in organization of the learning and teaching process. 

The lack of concordance between perceptions of the learning outcomes and pedagogic skills among lecturers and students may have serious impact on professional development and teaching medical students and transformation of medical education. The study reveals that it is not enough to have excellent professional knowledge, but teachers have to learn delivering it. So, the study resulted in the necessity (more from the side of the students) of transition and paradigm shift in medical education from profession to practice and patient oriented teaching methods.

Delivery of formal bedside teaching in small group sessions for medical students

Corresponding author: Noah Klimt, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom 

Junior Doctors as Teachers focused bedside teaching for medical students; a quality improvement programme. 10 fourth year medical students were underwent twice weekly bedside teaching for 2 months. The teaching focused on small-group teaching in endocrinology and rheumatology - two challenging areas of the medical school curriculum and generally poorly covered. There was a structured teaching programme incorporating examination skills and medical knowledge that were case based problems that could easily be found in any district general hospital. The quantitative and qualitative feedback demonstrated increased confidence in examining and treating common endocrinological and rheumatological conditions. The discussion centres on the utility and limitations of junior doctors as teachers to medical students. 

The results demonstrate that delivering the medical school curriculum by using a range of doctor seniority can have transformative consequences for medical students. Junior doctors have a more recent recollection of finals and day-to-day ward work meanwhile consultants have specialist expertise. The quality improvement programme demonstrated that incorporating junior doctors into bedside clinical teaching results in transformative medical student experience.

Assessment of Educational Needs and Design of Preceptor Professional Development Program for Health Professional Education Programs in Qatar - “Practice Educators Academy”

* Banan Mukhalalati, Ahmed Awaisu, Bridget Javed, Monica Zolezzi, Marwan Abu-Hijleh,  Ayad Almoslih, Alison Carr, Hiba Bawadi, Randa Almahasneh, Michael Romanowski, Rasha Bacha, Sara Elshami  
* Corresponding author: Banan Mukhalalati College of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, College of Education, Qatar University, 

Experiential learning involves supervised practical placement experiences facilitated by preceptors; practitioner educators. Preceptors are usually not familiar with best practices in teaching-learning and experiential education, because they are not trained as teachers (Boyle et al., 2009) . To address that, preceptors should be oriented to their respective educational curricula, teaching methods, students’ assessment, and to considering students’ needs and expectations (Dornblaser et al., 2016, Paravattil, 2012). 

This research aims to assess the educational needs of preceptors at Qatar University’s Health Cluster (composed of Pharmacy, Medicine and Health Sciences Colleges), and then develop and validate an educational professional development program called: “Qatar Practice Educators Academy”, which utilizes interprofessinal education concept in teaching and learning. 

This research applies a convergent mixed-methods triangulation study design (Creswell & Clark, 2017), whereby both qualitative and quantitative data are complementary during data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The data representing preceptors’ educational needs are used in designing the academy. 

Understanding adults learning principles, developing learning objective and planning teaching strategies, assessing students, and providing them with feedback are the most expressed educational needs of preceptors. Other needs involve learning how to deal with difficult students and with cultural diversities. The developed syllabus is designed to address those needs, while benchmarking it with other preceptors’ educational development programs, and validating it by health professional education experts. 

The developed syllabus for the “Qatar Practice Educators Academy” is designed to address Preceptors’ needs, while benchmarking it with other preceptors’ educational development programs, and validating it by health professional education experts. The academy is the first intervention nationally and regionally to develop the educational skills of preceptors considering their needs, and utilizing interprofessional education concept in teaching and learning, while benchmarking with other programs available internationally. 

The development of academy aligns with the third pillar of the Qatar National Vision (QNV) 2030 (General Secretariat for Development, 2008) on human capital development, and with the Pharmaceutical Workforce.

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